By Dr. Michael Cooper LaBossiere
This ebook offers descriptions and examples of forty two universal casual fallacies: advert Hominem advert Hominem Tu Quoque attract the results of a trust entice Authority entice trust entice universal perform entice Emotion entice worry entice Flattery entice Novelty attract Pity attract recognition attract Ridicule attract Spite attract culture Begging the query Biased Generalization Burden of facts Circumstantial advert Hominem Fallacy of Composition complicated reason and impression Fallacy of department fake challenge Gambler’s Fallacy Genetic Fallacy Guilt by way of organization Hasty Generalization Ignoring a typical reason heart flooring deceptive Vividness Peer strain own assault Poisoning the good submit Hoc Questionable reason crimson Herring Relativist Fallacy Slippery Slope unique Pleading highlight Straw guy Wrongs Make a correct
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Extra resources for 42 Fallacies
If what is moral is determined by what is commonly practiced, then this argument: 1) Most people do X. 2) Therefore X is morally correct. would not be a fallacy. This would however entail some odd results. For example, imagine that there are only 100 people on earth. 60 of them do not steal or cheat and 40 do. At this time, stealing and cheating would be wrong. The next day, a natural disaster kills 30 of the 60 people who do not cheat or steal. Now it is morally correct to cheat and steal. Thus, it would be possible to change the moral order of the world to one’s view simply by eliminating those who disagree.
2. Person B asserts that A’s actions or past claims are inconsistent with the truth of claim X. 3. Therefore X is false. The fact that a person makes inconsistent claims does not make any particular claim he makes false (although of any pair of inconsistent claims only one can be true—but both can be false). Also, the fact that a person’s claims are not consistent with his actions might indicate that the person is a hypocrite but this does not prove his claims are false. Example #1: Bill: “Smoking is very unhealthy and leads to all sorts of problems.
He’s your dean, by the way. I’ll see you later. Example #2: I don’t think a Red Ryder BB rifle would make a good present for you. They are very dangerous and you’ll put your eye out. Now, don’t you agree that you should think of another gift idea? Example #3: You must believe that God exists. After all, if you do not accept the existence of God, then you will face the horrors of hell. Example #4: You shouldn’t say such things against multiculturalism! If the chair heard what you were saying, you would never receive tenure.