A Century of Physics by D. Allan Bromley (auth.)

By D. Allan Bromley (auth.)

In this striking travel d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley makes use of the get together of the centenary of the yankee actual Society to mirror upon the expansion of physics during the last a hundred years, its fragmentation into a variety of subdisciplines, the influence physics has had upon smooth expertise, and the re-emergence of the elemental solidarity of the self-discipline in recent times. enormous quantities of ancient illustrations accompany the textual content. Bromley conveys a lot of the thrill and beauty that study in physics generated within the twentieth century and asks what new issues are in shop within the subsequent century. He covers such issues as relativity and quantum mechanics, the long island venture, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution led to through solid-state electronics, protein folding, the makes use of of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medication, plate tectonics, the growth of the universe and the massive Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale college, served as Assistant to the President for technological know-how and know-how coverage 1989-1993 and was once president of the yankee actual Society in 1997. one of many World's major nuclear scientists, he used to be founder and director of Yale's nuclear constitution laboratory and has bought various medals and awards, together with the nationwide Medal of Science.

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FIGURE 41 From the left: John Bardeen (1956, 1972), Leon N. Cooper (1972), and John Robert Schrieffer (1972). ) FIGURE 42 39 40 AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW, 1900-1949 FIGURE 43 Bednorz (right) and Muller after winning the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1987 for their discovery of ceramic superconductors. ) BuckYballs and Nanotubes Happily, surprises continue to occur. In 1996, Richard Smalley of Rice University received the Nobel Prize for his discovery that in electrical arcs between carbon electrodes entirely newall-carbon molecular complexes were being formed.

S. National Academy of Sciences and, subsequently, President of the Rockefeller University. The Immediate Postwar Period The immediate postwar period was one of major excitement as graduates of the wartime projects began to focus on where their subsequent careers would lead. A catalyst in this process was a series of symposia and conferences that brought physicists together to exchange ideas. The Shelter Island Conference of 1947 was typical of these meetings (see Figure 37). So also were the series of meetings held at the Carnegie Institution in Washington (see Figure 37a).

FIGURE 48 FIGURE 49 An illustration of the Lorentz attractor for a dynamical system. The phase point over time traces out this characteristic "owl mask" but without ever closing. The Lorentz attractor has become something of an emblem for chaotic systems. ) 45 46 AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW, 1900-1949 nonlinearity that evolved from Lorentz's work marks one of the major achievements in twentieth-century physics. Self-Similarity One other important development in the study of chaotic (or apparently chaotic) systems was initiated in the early 1960s by Benoit Mandelbrot, then at IBM.

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